On the possibilities and limitations of translation criticism (english and french translations published in 2000 and 2002), respectively, katherina reiss first suggested a consistent translation-oriented text typology. English translationof the classic german college text (1971) for use in training translators, interpretors, and evaluators of translations provides objective criteria for evaluating all varieties of translation, based on a typology of texts and the points of reference by which any particular translation should be judged.
Reiss' text-typology reiss sees translation as an act of communication whereby the translator acts as a medium (secondary sender) this presupposes that a message has to be passed across, from the primary sender (source text) to the secondary receiver (target text. Reiss's text typology is integrated into the framework as a specific theory, where equivalence of text type is required by the translation skopos = equivalence as the exception xiamen, 26/10/29012 c nord: text types and skopos 6 adequacy vs equivalence within the framework of skopos theorie, adequacy refers to the qualities of a target text with regard to the translation brief: the translation should be 'adequate to' the requirements of the brief.
Reisss text typology is: informative,expressive, operative and the audio medial 3 skopos theoryskopos theory focuses on translation as an activitywith an aim or purpose, and on the intendedaddressee or audience of the translation.
Reiss' text-typology includes a two-phase approach in translating a text: phase of analysis and phase of reverbalization the analysis phase basically involves establishing the text type, genre and style (linguistic form)the phase of analysis is the most important as that is what would inform the translation method to employ. Broeck, toury and berman to different text types respectively in order to discuss the applicability of translation criticism approaches, text typology of katharina reiss including informative, expressive and operative text types has been used as a theoretical framework. Source text therefore, identifying the text type also helps the translator to select the appropriate translation strategy text, discourse and genre in order to discuss the notion of text typology, it is necessary to differentiate between three other terms which are incorporated into its definition, namely: text, discourse and genre.
For use in training translators, interpretors, and evaluators of translations provides objective criteria for evaluating all varieties of translation, based on a typology of texts and the points of reference by which any particular translation should be judged the scope of translation criticism is defined and its limitations are examined. In other words, a target text that does not have the same function as the source text is not entirely a translation, but what reiss calls 'transfer' reiss' text-typology includes a two-phase approach in translating a text: phase of analysis and phase of reverbalization.